Facebook has been abuzz lately with articles about the benefits of musical training on the brains and learning abilities of our children. The influence of music training on learning has long been cultivated in Waldorf Education, where musical instrument training begins in Grade 1 with pentatonic flutes and moves to stringed instruments by Grade 4. Students also receive choral training, study music reading and notation, and learn Solfege.
This latest round of internet excitement comes from a new study released by researchers at the University of Vermont College of Medicine. They found that children between age 6 and 18 had both physiological and behavioral benefits from musical instrument training.
According to this Washington Post article, Music Lessons Spur Emotional and Behavioral Growth in Children, James Hudziak, Director of the Vermont Center for Children, Youth and Families, says, “What we found was the more a child trained on an instrument [the more it] accelerated cortical organization in attention skill, anxiety management and emotional control.” When children played and practiced playing an instrument, it thickened an area of the brain related to “executive functioning, including working memory, attention control, as well as organisation and planning for the future.”
This new study is also layered on top of three additional studies published late in 2013 by The Society for Neuroscience. According to the press release, those finding show that “[l]ong-term high level musical training has a broader impact than previously thought. Researchers found that musicians have an enhanced ability to integrate sensory information from hearing, touch, and sight” (Julie Roy, abstract 550.13).
The age at which musical training begins affects brain anatomy as an adult; beginning training before the age of seven has the greatest impact (Yunxin Wang, abstract 765.07).
Brain circuits involved in musical improvisation are shaped by systematic training, leading to less reliance on working memory and more extensive connectivity within the rain (Ana Pinho, MS, abstract 122.13).
Music Training at SGWS
Here at Spring Garden Waldorf School, musical training is seen as a layering of abilities. What is taught in the early grades is built upon each year, as more and more is expected musically from the students. Children are given regular opportunities to perform their music, at monthly Assemblies and also at Concerts and Festivals.
Grades 1 & 2:
In the early years, music is an expression and embodiment of imagination. In Grades One and Two, children learn music from the pentatonic scale both in song and on their flutes or recorders.
In Grade Three, during the nine-year change, children are ready to begin learning the language of music. A diatonic scale is introduced with a new recorder, notes are named by letter, and children learn basic music notation such as the scale and clef. Third graders also begin Solfege – a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing.
Grade Four brings fraction studies, and fractions bring quarter, eighth, and sixteenth notes, which then leads to teaching rhythms, rounds, and some simple harmony. Now that the language of music has been introduced, children begin to play musical instruments, starting with the violin.
Students in Grade Five are ready for three parts in choral music. Accidentals are also introduced in this grade, and new keys are taught beyond the key of C. Students also continue to master the violin with regular training and performance.
In Grade Six, children can choose to expand their instrumental repertoire by selecting a different stringed instrument to master beyond the violin. They also learn and master written music from the Medieval period, aligning music with the Main Lesson curriculum. Acoustics are also studied this year.
Grade 7 & 8:
Middle School layers skills and practice upon all that has been learned before. Ensemble choirs read music and sing in harmony and rhythm. Sight singing also begins and Solfege study continues, and Orchestra is part of every student’s curriculum. Students can also begin training on woodwind instruments in the upper grades, if they so choose, or they can continue to master their stringed instrument choices.
Waldorf educators teach in a three day rhythm: presenting information or an experience the first day; discussion, review, and recall the second day; and doing something physical with the information the third day, such as expressing the information through writing or art. What is the commonality in this three day approach? The importance of sleep.
Why poor sleep leads to poor academic performance
We all know sleep is important, especially for our children’s emotional well-being, but what about their academic well-being? Research shows that good sleep is essential to learning, especially influencing specific types of memory, high level cognitive functioning, and achievement motivation.
Children need, according to SleepFoundation.org:
- 12-14 hours for children between 1 and 3.
- 11-13 hours for children between 3 and 5.
- 10-11 hours for children between 5 and 12.
- 8.5 -10 hours for teens.
Numerous studies on sleep and academics have found that sleep deprivation and low sleep quality leads to lagging achievement. Two such studies were summarized in this SleepFoundation.org news article, Improve Your Child’s School Performance with a Good Night’s Sleep. In one quoted study, researchers found that children who had difficulty falling asleep and woke up at least once a night were significantly more likely to have school achievement difficulties. A different study of high school students noted that those with higher grades slept around 30 minutes longer per night, went to bed earlier, and had less variation in their weekend schedules.
In a study of Dutch school children between the ages of nine and fourteen, Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children (Journal of Sleep Research 9:I2, p145), researchers found that children with better sleep quality (those who felt rested and had regular bedtimes) performed better in school, and perhaps most interestingly, were more open to the teacher’s influence and more motivated to do well.
This University of Pittsburgh study, The impact of inadequate sleep on children’s daytime cognitive function, published in Seminar of Pediatric Neurology (March 1996, Volume 1, p.44) found that inadequate sleep in school children resulted in difficulty focusing, irritability, emotional instability, and a lower threshold for frustration.
Two Harvard Education articles review Harvard research to best answer the question, “Why does sleep affect learning?” They each point to the affect poor sleep has on both memory and higher level cognitive functioning.
In this article, Sleep, Learning and Memory, from the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School, researchers declare that, “the general consensus is that consolidated sleep throughout a whole night is optimal for learning and memory.” More specifically, they look at a function called memory consolidation, which takes place during sleep, which seems to help students to process what they learned the previous day. The current hypothesis is “that slow-wave sleep (SWS), which is deep, restorative sleep, also plays a significant role in declarative memory by processing and consolidating newly acquired information.”
This is particularly interesting to Waldorf Educators, who adhere to a main lesson block learning style that taps into a rhythm of learning a topic, stepping away from it, and returning to it a day later – a concept Rudolph Steiner believed allowed children to absorb and process the information more thoroughly.
Good sleep is essential not only for memory but also for higher cognition. In this article from the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard, Sleep, Performance, and Public Safety, researchers also found that sleep deprivation led to a decline in the subjects’ ability to access higher-level cognitive functions. “After a period of sleep deprivation, there are noticeable changes in brain activity, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG).”
Researchers found, in particular, that the prefrontal cortex, responsible for many higher-level thinking was particularly vulnerable to a lack of sleep. “As a result, people who are sleep deprived will begin to show deficits in many tasks that require logical reasoning or complex thought. … In addition to the feeling of sleepiness and changes in brain activity that accompany a night without sleep, other measures of performance are noticeably altered. Concentration, working memory, mathematical capacity, and logical reasoning are all aspects of cognitive function compromised by sleep deprivation.”
What to do?
First and foremost, consider eliminating screen time before bed. Waldorf parents limit screen time more so than most, but it is important to remember that screen time around bedtime is potentially the most detrimental.
As recently reported on in Businessweek’s article, Kids Who Sleep Near Their Smartphones Get Less Shuteye, a study published in Journal of Pediatrics, joins many others in reporting that televisions, phones and tablets in children’s rooms and beds negatively impact sleep.
Next to consider is consistent bedtimes. Organizations like the SleepFoundation.org are going so far as to label it “Sleep Hygiene,” recognizing that the habituation of a sleep routine is as important in maintaining children’s physical health as bathing or brushing their teeth. As the studies above have noted, children who go to bed at an earlier time and consistently (weekdays and weekends), get more sleep, wake feeling rested and do better in school.
And finally, consider educating older children about the importance of sleep. With third party evidence and scientific research supporting your family’s bedtime “hygiene,” a teenager may be more willing to comply and adopt healthy sleep habits once outside the home.
Get a good night’s rest for better learning tomorrow!
On November 19th, Spring Garden’s current Grade Six teacher, Michael Gannon, hosted a lecture titled Child Development 101. During this Coffee and Conversation, he explored the Waldorf perspective on child development through the different classes and ages.
According to Gannon, “Waldorf education strives to see the child for where they are, right now, understand how they are developing, and then work to support that in the classroom.”
Gannon began by explaining Rudolph Steiner’s understanding of child development, which was very forward thinking at his time. A contemporary of Freud and Piaget, Steiner’s training as a philosopher inspired him to look beyond brain development and into the corresponding realms of the social, physical, and spiritual development.
He felt a child’s development was an Epigenesis — a cognitive, social, spiritual, and physical process through distinct stages– leading to a differentiated state of adulthood based on how these elements were influenced. And, of course, one of the primary influences is education.
Steiner divided child development into three distinct stages and labeled them based on the primary force driving a child’s experience in the world. Ages 0-7 are defined by Will, ages 7-14 by Feeling, and ages 14-21 by Thinking. Through each phase, the child works to understand and eventually utilize these forces.
Every action of an infant is done from their own will — a will that strives to survive, to crawl, to walk — all with little to no encouragement from the outside world. This intense desire to do their will continues far beyond infancy. According to Gannon, before the age seven, the child works from instinct converted into impulse and desire, which can then be harnessed into learning and behavior.
That is why, ideally, children during this stage spend as much time as possible learning to master the use of their bodies. It is best for them to do this on a schedule, using their will in a constructive way, as opposed to being told to subdue their will for a specific task. Imitation of the behaviors they see is a natural process for children of this age, and providing healthy models for that imitation, without intellectual explanation, allows the will to develop more fully.
This is also why the day moves between work and play in Waldorf early childhood classes. The work, a channeling of the young child’s will, happens through imitation of meaningful tasks versus an authoritative coercion to understand concepts. At this stage, children will develop their physical, cognitive, and social skills from unstructured play as their will and desire runs up against the forces of the outside world.
After age seven, a child’s world expands beyond the self, and with this expansion, they develop a great subtlety of feeling. Gannon explains that children’s feelings dominate their world in this stage as they move between joy and sadness and learn to manage these different emotions within the greater, more expansive world now open to them.
The healthy feeling life of the child is supported by providing a context of beauty for all things, from simple movements to complex ideas. By appealing to their natural imaginative capacities, children can be encouraged to use these active feelings to connect to learning as a process.
It is at this time that children are ready for academic instruction, as long as it continues to appeal to social and physical realms and, even more so, the realm of feeling. This is why Waldorf grade school lessons are taught through engaging stories of trial and triumph. Children who sympathize and relate to a story in these years are moved to carry the information and process it in a deep and meaningful way that persists as they grow into a more conceptual and thinking way of being.
By the time they reach high school, children are ready to work with their thoughts and beliefs. They are ready to think critically and evaluate the world around them. Where they first learned to manage their will and then work with their feelings, they now learn to work with their thoughts.
According to Gannon, children at this stage become immersed in the world of ideas and have the capacity to think abstractly and critically, seeing both sides of a story, which can then be broken down and criticized. Steiner believed that, along with their search for knowledge, children at this age also search for truth as they work to make their lives their own. He believed that teaching through a sense of idealism and justice was essential for the health of the young adult, who, if not given role models of hope, would succumb to cynicism.
This is why older children in Waldorf Education are often engaged in service to their community and encouraged to contribute their gifts to the world in a meaningful way.
It is with this understanding of child development that Waldorf educators work to support and teach children. Incorporating and addressing these stages of development, every day and within every subject, allows Waldorf schools to educate the whole child by teaching
the right subject matter at the right time, in the right way.
Ever known a math whiz who can’t jump rope? Or maybe you know the world’s most competent linguist who is tone deaf or cannot balance his checkbook. Our daily experiences demonstrate that “smart” is not defined by a single measure. Howard Gardner, American developmental psychologist and Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, developed the theory of multiple intelligences that has revolutionized the way educators think about learning.
The idea of one “general” intelligence ruling someone’s abilities has become an outdated notion since Gardner published his theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. Waldorf educators, following the impulses of Austrian scientist and philosopher Rudolph Steiner, have been focusing on the education of the whole child since the late 19th century.
We at Spring Garden Waldorf School have created a detailed blog series discussing how each of Gardner’s eight intelligences is fostered in the Waldorf classroom. Read more on how each of these intelligences are developed at Spring Garden Waldorf by clicking the links below:
Last Wednesday, Spring Garden hosted speaker Cate Hunko, M.Ed., as she discussed Waldorf education and her experiences teaching math to 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students.
Ms. Hunko has been a Waldorf Teacher for over 15 years, is the mother of two daughters, and was previously an artist working as an automotive designer — all experiences that have helped fuel her passion to understand how young teens of both genders approach and process mathematics.
During the algebra block in Grade 7, Ms. Hunko noticed a divergence in her class between the boys and girls. This difference had never presented itself in the younger grades, where all children (for the most part) approached and learned math similarly. She wanted to know why she was seeing this happen in the older grades and began researching the topic.
Her studies led her to information on a developmental split that occurs when children enter puberty. Their physical maturity, it seems, alters their brains and their approach to mathematics.
While she acknowledges that every child is different, she has seen a few trends in differences between boys and girls. In her experience, boys in middle school seem comfortable with numbers and willing to move through the process of math without much questioning. As they gain new skills, they can become competitive about their accomplishments.
Girls have no trouble memorizing formulas, but they often seem more separated from the black-and-white process of mathematics; instead, they display a deep drive to understand the how and why of the calculations. The competition the males bring to the table is not always engaging or encouraging to their female peers. As girls bring memorized formulas to problems, they often hesitate in the application of those formulas, standing outside of the process and analyzing it instead of just jumping in.
According to Hunko, this difference between male and female students often requires teachers to give young women more time at math, both in the short term and long term, while understanding that their careful approach does not indicate a lack of skill.
She says, “They want to be intuitive about it, but sometimes it takes time for them to set that aside in order to accomplish the task.”
What does giving students “time” mean?
and ‘not talented,’ especially considering that more young women may fall into this lesser category during this important time in their physical development.”
Hunko feels adolescent girls are often left behind in STEM learning because adolescent boys, who often have fewer physical challenges and different brain development than girls during puberty, seem quicker at math – a quickness that doesn’t necessarily correspond with innate talent. However, it is a relatively short time before the young women can catch up with their male peers, and a slower and more dedicated teaching style that avoids labeling can ensure female students’ success.
What does effective STEM teaching look like for young women?
Hunko recommends engaging young women in both the history and practicality of math, but also stresses that they cannot stay in that place in their mind as they put what they know into practice. “They must transfer that enthusiasm to the formulas they’ve committed to memory and then they must focus, stay grounded, and commit to the formula.”
Hunko feels that even more than the teaching itself, the home life and support of parents makes the biggest difference in women entering STEM careers. “Many of the women currently in STEM had parents in STEM. Parent support in the sciences is key. First off, don’t give up on your girls, even if they struggle with math during junior high. That doesn’t mean they’re ‘not math people.’ Don’t use labels like that, and don’t discuss your own struggles so they have a chance to be true to themselves. Don’t say you ‘also hated’ math.’ Struggle and hate are not always the same.”
Hunko believes it is women’s different approach to math – careful, focused on the big picture, and less competitive – that makes female career roles in STEM essential.
“When it comes to teaching, the pendulum is swinging to a far side in STEM right now. We need to bring it back to the center. Women have a lot to offer the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math industry. They bring a different and essential perspective.”
Routine is good for children. It makes them feel safe: kids who have solid routines know what’s coming most of the time and can better adapt to the occasional unexpected event. Routine also helps make parents’ lives easier and improves children’s behavior. But in modern life, hectic schedules often disrupt routine. While ditching a formal dinnertime or extending bedtime may seem to relieve stress in the moment, research implies otherwise.
A Syracuse University metastudy of 32 studies of routine and ritual in family life between 1950 and 2000, published in the Journal of Family Psychology, found that “although families may be challenged to meet the busy demands of juggling work and home, there is reason to believe that routines and rituals may ease the stress of daily living.”
One way in which routines help relieve family stress is by helping the long-term behavior of children. Take, for example, the results of a study reported in this article from The Guardian. The University College London did a study of bedtimes and routines in three-, five, and seven-year-olds and found that “children put to bed at the same time each day are significantly less likely to misbehave,” and that “children who had changeable bedtimes between the ages of three and five displayed better behavior by age seven if their bedtimes had become more regular.”
Another study, published in the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and reported here at Reuters, found that “children who took part in more family routines were more likely to be socially and emotionally advanced” and that routines “can help with what we call ‘executive function': skills like problem-solving, negotiation, planning and delayed gratification. Having good executive function skills is absolutely important for school success.”
So what routines should you establish? Any routines and rituals created by your family hold value. This 2007 study by Mary Spagnola, Ph.D., and Barbara H. Fiese, Ph.D., published in the journal Infants and Children,” said any regular family practice encouraging emotional connection showed beneficial results. However, the study identified three specific routines they noted as contributors to healthy child development:
- A nightly dinner routine was found to provide rich and complex language development experiences.
- Reading routines were shown to improve literacy.
- Daily living routines, like meal preparation, homework, and age-appropriate extracurricular activities, were found to foster social skills and independence.
No matter what routines you and your family decide to embrace, the research shows that it will help balance your child’s behavior, build academic and social skills, and relieve stress in the family.