Routine is good for children. It makes them feel safe: kids who have solid routines know what’s coming most of the time and can better adapt to the occasional unexpected event. Routine also helps make parents’ lives easier and improves children’s behavior. But in modern life, hectic schedules often disrupt routine. While ditching a formal dinnertime or extending bedtime may seem to relieve stress in the moment, research implies otherwise.
A Syracuse University metastudy of 32 studies of routine and ritual in family life between 1950 and 2000, published in the Journal of Family Psychology, found that “although families may be challenged to meet the busy demands of juggling work and home, there is reason to believe that routines and rituals may ease the stress of daily living.”
One way in which routines help relieve family stress is by helping the long-term behavior of children. Take, for example, the results of a study reported in this article from The Guardian. The University College London did a study of bedtimes and routines in three-, five, and seven-year-olds and found that “children put to bed at the same time each day are significantly less likely to misbehave,” and that “children who had changeable bedtimes between the ages of three and five displayed better behavior by age seven if their bedtimes had become more regular.”
Another study, published in the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and reported here at Reuters, found that “children who took part in more family routines were more likely to be socially and emotionally advanced” and that routines “can help with what we call ‘executive function': skills like problem-solving, negotiation, planning and delayed gratification. Having good executive function skills is absolutely important for school success.”
So what routines should you establish? Any routines and rituals created by your family hold value. This 2007 study by Mary Spagnola, Ph.D., and Barbara H. Fiese, Ph.D., published in the journal Infants and Children,” said any regular family practice encouraging emotional connection showed beneficial results. However, the study identified three specific routines they noted as contributors to healthy child development:
- A nightly dinner routine was found to provide rich and complex language development experiences.
- Reading routines were shown to improve literacy.
- Daily living routines, like meal preparation, homework, and age-appropriate extracurricular activities, were found to foster social skills and independence.
No matter what routines you and your family decide to embrace, the research shows that it will help balance your child’s behavior, build academic and social skills, and relieve stress in the family.
Many of our prospective parents wrestle with the decision of whether to send their children to a public school or to Spring Garden Waldorf School. There are many differences between public education and Waldorf education, though a general summary might be that Waldorf education places a high value on art, critical thinking, and creativity, and does not begin academic instruction before the age of seven. Public school, on the other hand, puts a high value on standardized and measurable academics, with a focus on math and reading starting at age five.
Watch this video to learn why one public school teacher chose to send her son to Spring Garden Waldorf School. Or for read this article more information about the differences between Waldorf and Public school.
If you have a young child who is advanced in academics, is an early reader, or seems ready for formal schooling at an early age, you may believe that Waldorf Education isn’t the right choice for you. You may worry that your bright child will be bored in a Waldorf classroom.
However, in this article, Dr. Richard House, a senior lecturer at Roehampton University’s Research Centre for Therapeutic Education, recommends delaying formal schooling for bright children. He says, “…gifted pupils from relatively affluent backgrounds suffered the most from being pushed ‘too far, too fast.’” He quoted a major U.S. study, carried out over eight decades, that demonstrated how “children’s ‘run-away intellect’ actually benefited from being slowed down in the early years, allowing them to develop naturally.”
The absence of worksheets and standardized testing in the early grades does not mean that Spring Garden does not introduce these young pupils to advanced concepts. Students in Grades One and Two are actively taught mathematical concepts along with reading and writing, nature and science, music, art and foreign language — all in a multi-sensory and engaged manner.
Joanna Caley, mother of a Spring Garden student, talks about the benefits her gifted daughter experienced when given a more balanced Waldorf education at Spring Garden.
Click to learn more about Waldorf Education:
You’ve joined your library’s reading challenge and bought a workbook for math facts, but here are some Waldorf-inspired ways to help your children get the most out of summer and stay sharp.
- Take a Hike
Not only is hiking fun for the whole family, but according to this University of Michigan study, it boosts cognitive performance.
- Work in a Garden
Did you know? Sage College Scientists found that “ingesting or breathing in a common soil bacterium found in nature reduces anxiety and improves learning.” Don’t have a garden? Work in ours! Find Work Dates HERE.
- Send Them Outside
The National Wildlife Federation has filled a PDF with all the latest research about the benefits of unstructured outdoor play, proving that “nature may indeed be the best kind of nurture…”
- Let Them Get Bored
As this BBC news article states right in the title: Children should be allowed to get bored. Dr. Teresa Belton said, “Cultural expectations that children should be constantly active could hamper the development of their imagination.”That means they don’t have to be entertained while you need to work. This article from Parenting Science explores over a decade of studies about the benefits of unstructured play time. The author is careful to note that free play does not mean physical education classes or sports or summer camps. Free play is unstructured play time, which has been proven to help math skills, language development, and creative problem solving.
- Read a Fairy Tale
“If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales.” ― Albert EinsteinThis fabulous article on ImaginationSoup.net perfectly encapsulates the importance of reading fairy tales to children.
So, put away the flashcards and go enjoy a smart summer!
by Rocky Lewis
Cursive writing: Outdated mode of communication, or the latest victim of standardized testing? Advocates of cutting cursive from the curriculum say it’s time-consuming to teach and no longer useful in a keyboard world. Advocates of keeping cursive in the classroom, like Waldorf Educators, say it is more than a means to a writing ends — it’s a brain builder, a historical research tool, and a note-taking skill set.
In defense of the idea that handwriting is outdated, a 2012 survey of handwriting teachers, conducted by Zaner-Bloser, a publisher of cursive textbooks, found that only 37% of the handwriting teachers themselves wrote in cursive, although 55% had created a hybrid method of writing. (1)
Steve Graham, Education Professor at Arizona State University says arguments for teaching handwriting are “based in nostalgia and not research.” But a handful of states disagree and have decided to make it mandatory again, including California, Idaho, Kansas, Massachusetts, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. (2)(3)
Their reason? A growing body of research in the neurosciences showing that writing in by hand activates brain areas involved in language and working memory.
Indiana University –
Children were asked to interact with an fMRI. The kids were shown letters before and after receiving different letter-learning instruction including print (manuscript) and cursive. Writing by hand, in either print or cursive, resulted in “recruitment of letter speciﬁc neural processing regions seen in the literate adult.” And surprisingly, these results happened after a very short period of writing instruction. (4)
Researcher and Indiana University neuroscientist, Karin Harman James, says,
“These kinds of findings point to there being something really important about printing and potentially also about cursive.” (5)
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience –
A French study from 2008, published in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, evaluated “the ability of adults to discriminate new characters from their mirror images after being taught how to produce the characters either by traditional pen-and-paper writing or with a computer keyboard.” The researchers found that those who wrote by hand could recognize the mirrored characters for several weeks, unlike the adults who used a keyboard. (6) Handwriting advocates say this suggests a connection between writing, memory, and visual learning.
University of Washington –
Virginia Berninger, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, has spent her 30-year career studying cognitive neuroscience, specifically related to learning reading, writing, and math in children with and without disabilities. (7)
She was part of a study published in The Journal of Educational Psychology that found elementary students could not only write more quickly using cursive vs. the keyboard, but also wrote more complete sentences. (8)
Another study Berninger was involved with shows handwriting or “sequential finger movements” activate brain regions involved in thinking, language, and working memory, which are not comparable to brain activity recorded when typing. (9)
And in her article Strengthening the Mind’s Eye, A Case for Continued Handwriting Instruction in the 21st Century, published by The National Association of Elementary School Principals, she cites several additional studies that connect learning how to write by hand as a “necessary motor exercise … [to] develop eye-hand coordination motor skills (Saperstein Associates 2012; James and Gauthier 2006; James 2012; Berninger 2012).” (10)
Teachers College –
Stephen Peverly, Professor of Psychology and Education and Chair of the Department of Health and Behavior Studies at Teachers College, has studied transcription speed (how fast students can write or type) and its effect on comprehension.
He says, “For kids in the first few years of school, how fast they write is one of the best predictors of the quality of essays they write in school.”
As earlier studies have noted, handwriting is faster for young children. But what if they could learn to type fast? Peverly plans to address this question in his next study — measuring results of speed and comprehension in note taking via handwriting vs. computer.
He says. “Good note-taking isn’t simply about trying to take down all the information. It’s also a filtering process, a way of zeroing in on what’s most important.” (11)
It would seem the handwriting is on the wall, so to speak. More and more research is drawing a connection between writing by hand and better learning. One can conclude that jumping too quickly to keyboarding can hinder deeper connections formed in the brain. However, the differentiation between the benefits of teaching manuscript (print) versus cursive, has not yet been solidly established by the current research.
Spring Garden Waldorf School is not required to give standardized tests and does not evaluate teachers based on scores; however, SGWS does administer the IOWA Test of Basic Skills once a year to students in Grades Four through Eight. We do not test children before Grade Four.
Administrative Team Leader, Tracy Edwards, explains:
“As a school, we use this test to compare individual and class progress from year to year as we move through our Waldorf Curriculum. Parents also appreciate having a quantitative measure of their child’s progress as compared with public education.”
And how does Waldorf, and Spring Garden, student performance compare to national averages?
The Nov/Dec 2011 Harvard Education Letter reports that “Waldorf students tend to score considerably below district peers in the early years of elementary education and equal to, or… considerably above, district peers by eighth grade.”
An independent five-year study of SGWS students’ IOWA test scores seems to confirm the results of Harvard’s national study. The 2014 study, conducted by the University of Akron Business Analytics department, found that test scores at Spring Garden rose as students rose in grade level, and that students’ national percentile ranks also increased as they moved through the grades. This means that by Grade Eight, SGWS students well outperformed their same-age and same-grade peers nationally who took the IOWA tests.
- 50% of SGWS Grade Eight students tested at a 13th grade equivalency, the grade level at which the IOWA test is capped.
- 75% of SGWS Grade Eight students performed significantly above 10th grade equivalency.
There was no significant difference in the performance of male vs. female students at Spring Garden Waldorf School.
In Grades Four, Five, and Six, the unique unfolding of the Waldorf curriculum creates some discrepancies between the areas being measured on the tests and our learning goals; therefore, we give the younger students only the Language Arts and Mathematics sections of the test. However, our Grade Seven and Eight students take all sections of the test and follow the test’s required time limits, so there were no outstanding variables in the study’s Eighth Grade comparison.